Establishing the importance of the topic:
✔ One of the most significant current discussions in legal and moral philosophy is ….
✔ It is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the ….
✔ X is the leading cause of death in western industrialized countries.
✔ X is a common disorder characterized by ….
✔ Xs are one of the most widely used groups of antibacterial agents and ….
✔ Xs are the most potent anti-inflammatory agents known.
✔ X is an important component in the climate system, and plays a key role in Y.
✔ In the new global economy, X has become a central issue for ….
✔ In the history of development economics, X has been thought of as a key factor in ….
✔ The issue of X has received considerable critical attention.
✔ X is a major public health problem, and the cause of about 4% of the global burden of disease.
✔ X is an increasingly important area in applied linguistics.
✔ Central to the entire discipline of X is the concept of ….
✔ X is at the heart of our understanding of ….
Establishing the importance of the topic (time frame given):
✔ Recent developments in X have heightened the need for ….
✔ In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in ….
✔ In the arena of X , there has been a recent surge in interest and research.
✔ Recent developments in the field of X have led to a renewed interest in ….
✔ Recently, researchers have shown an increased interest in ….
✔ Since 1949 the submarine area off X has undergone intensive investigation ….
✔ The past decade has seen the rapid development and diffusion of X in many ….
✔ The past thirty years have seen increasingly rapid advances in the field of…..
✔ Over the past century there has been a dramatic increase in ….
✔ In the past two decades a number of researchers have sought to determine …..
✔ X proved an important literary genre in the early Y community.
✔ One of the most important events of the 1970s was ….
✔ Traditionally, Xs have subscribed to the belief that ….
✔ X was widespread in the Middle East in the 1920s.
Synopsis of Literature
✔ Recently investigators have examined the effects of X on Y.
✔ In the past two decades a number of researchers have sought to determine ….
✔ Previous studies have reported ….
✔ A considerable amount of literature has been published on X. These studies ….
✔ Smith (1984: 217) shows how, in the past, research into X was mainly concerned with ….
✔ Surveys such as that conducted by Smith (1988) showed that ….
✔ The first serious discussions and analyses of X emerged during the 1970s with ….
✔ Recent evidence suggests that ….
✔ Several attempts have been made to ….
✔ A number of researchers have reported ….
✔ Xs were reported in the first models of Y (e.g., Smith, 1977; Smith, & Patel, 1977).
✔ What we know about X is largely based upon empirical studies that investigate how …. Studies of X show the importance of ….
Highlighting a problem in the field of study:
✔ However, these rapid changes are having a serious effect ….
✔ However, a major problem with this kind of application is ….
✔ Lack of X has existed as a health problem for many years.
✔ Despite its safety and efficacy, X suffers from several major drawbacks:
✔ However, research has consistently shown that first year students have not attained an adequate understanding of….
✔ There is increasing concern that some Xs are being disadvantaged ….
✔ Despite its long clinical success, X has a number of problems in use.
✔ Questions have been raised about the safety of prolonged use of ….
Highlighting a controversy in the field of study:
✔ To date there has been little agreement on what …
✔ More recently, literature has emerged that offers contradictory findings about ….
✔ One observer has already drawn attention to the paradox in ….
✔ In many Xs a debate is taking place between Ys and Zs concerning ….
✔ The controversy about scientific evidence for X has raged unabated for over a century.
✔ Debate continues about the best strategies for the management of ….
✔ This concept has recently been challenged by …. studies demonstrating ….
Highlighting a knowledge gap in the field of study:
✔ So far, however, there has been little discussion about ….Little is known about X and it is not clear what factors ….
✔ However, far too little attention has been paid to ….In addition, no research has been found that surveyed ….
✔ So far this method has only been applied to ….
✔ This indicates a need to understand the various perceptions of poverty that exist among …..
✔ However, the evidence for this relationship is inconclusive ….
✔ What is not yet clear is the impact of X on ….
✔ The microbiological basis of this X is poorly understood.
✔ However, much uncertainty still exists about the relation between ….
✔ Until recently, there has been no reliable evidence that ….
✔ However, there have been no controlled studies which compare differences in ….Seeral studies have produced estimates of X (Smith, 2002; Jones, 2003), but there is still insufficient data for ….
✔ No previous study has investigated X though extensive research has been carried out on …, no single study exists which ….
Highlighting inadequacies of previous studies:
✔ Most studies in the field of X have only focused on ….
✔ Most studies in X have only been carried out in a small number of areas.
✔ The generalisability of much published research on this issue is problematic.The experimental data are rather controversial, and there is no general agreement about ….
✔ Such expositions are unsatisfactory because they ….
✔ However, few writers have been able to daw on any structured research into the opinions and attitudes of …..
✔ The research to date has tended to focus on X rather than Y.
✔ The existing accounts fail to resolve the contradiction between X and Y.
✔ Researchers have not treated X in much detail.
✔ Previous studies of X have not dealt with ….
✔ Half of the studies evaluated failed to specify whether ….
✔ However, much of the research up to now has been descriptive in nature ….
✔ Although extensive research has been carried out on X, no single study exists which adequately covers ….
✔ However, these results were based upon data from over 30 years ago and it is unclear if these differences still persist. X’s analysis does not take account of …. nor does he examine ….
Stating the purpose:
✔ Part of the aim of this project is to develop software that is compatible with X operating system.
✔ The main purpose of this study is to develop an understanding of ….
✔ There are two primary aims of this study: 1. To investigate …. 2. To ascertain ….
✔ The aim of this research project has therefore been to try and establish what ….
✔ The aim of this study is to investigate the differences between ….
✔ The main aim of this investigation is to assess the doses and risks associated with ….
✔ This thesis intends to determine the extent to which …. and whether ….
✔ This thesis will examine the way in which the ….
✔ This research examines the emerging role of X in the context of ….
✔ This dissertation seeks to explain the development of ….
✔ This case study seeks to examine the changing nature of …..
✔ Drawing upon two stands of research into X, this study attempts to ….
✔ The aim of this study is to shine new light on these debates through an examination of ….
✔ The major objective of this study was to investigate …..
✔ One purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which these factors were ….
✔ The objectives of this research are to determine ….
✔ This study therefore set out to assess the effect of management by …., and the effect of ….
✔ This study systematically reviews the data for…., aiming to provide clarity surrounding the role of …..
Research questions or hypotheses
✔ The central question in this dissertation asks how ….
✔ In particular, this dissertation will examine six main research questions:
✔ The hypothesis that will be tested is that ….
✔ The key research question of this study was thus whether or not ….
✔ This study aimed to address the following research questions:
✔ Another question is whether ….
Synopsis of the method/sources of data
✔ This dissertation follows a case-study design, with in-depth analysis of ….
✔ This study was exploratory and interpretative in nature.
✔ The approach to empirical research adopted for this study was one of a qualitative, semi-structured interview methodology.
✔ By employing qualitative modes of enquiry, I attempt to illuminate the ….
✔ This work takes the form of a case-study of the ….
✔ Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in this investigation.
✔ Qualitative and quantitative research designs were adopted to provide both descriptive, interpretive and empirical data.
✔ A holistic approach is utilized, integrating literary, numanistic and archaeological material to establish ….
✔ The research data in this thesis is drawn from four main sources: ….
✔ The study was conducted in the form of a survey, with data being gathered via ….
✔ Five works will be examined, all of which ….
✔ Due to practical constraints, this paper cannot provide a comprehensive review of ….
✔ It is beyond the scope of this study to examine the ….
✔ The reader should bear in mind that the study is based on ….
✔ A full discussion of X lies beyond the scope of this study.
Giving reasons for personal Interest*
✔ I became interested in Xs after reading many of those articles in the national press which quoted evidence, often anecdotal, of ….
✔ This project was conceived during my time working for X. As a medical adviser I witnessed …. *人文学や社会学でたまに見られる表現
Outlining the structure:
✔ The overall structure of the study takes the form of six chapters, including this introductory chapter.
✔ My thesis is composed of four themed chapters.
✔ Chapter Two begins by laying out the theoretical dimensions of the research, and looks at how ….
✔ The third chapter is concerned with the methodology used for this study.
✔ The fourth section presents the findings of the research, focusing on the three key themes that have been identified in analysis.
✔ Chapter 6 analyses the results of interviews and focus group discussions undertaken during the course of this research, ….
✔ The final chapter draws upon the entire thesis, tying up the various theoretical and empirical strands in order to ….
✔ Finally, the conclusion gives a brief summary and critique of the findings, …. and includes a discussion of the implication of the findings to future research into this area.
✔ …. Finally, areas for further research are identified.
Explaining key terms:
✔ While a variety of definitions of the term X have been suggested, this dissertation will use the definition first suggested by Smith (1968) who saw it as ….
✔ Throughout this paper the term X will refer to/will be used to refer to ….
✔ In this dissertation the acronym/abbreviation XYZ will be used.According to …. (2000) X can be defined as follows; ” X is one of …. ”
✔ The term X is a relatively new name for ….., commonly referred to as ….
✔ This definition is close to that of Smith (2009) who defined X as ….