[サンプル付き]TOEFLライティング完全対策

英作文・文法

こんにちは!英文校正ワードバイスです。

TOEFLスコアアップのために日々勉強中の皆様、お疲れ様です。本日はTOEFLライティングに臨む心構えや文章構成のアドバイスをお送りいたします。

エッセイ構成のサンプルも掲載しておりますので、より良いエッセイ執筆のための参考にしていただければ幸いです。

I. エッセイを書き始める前に

  • リラックスし、自信を持つ。
  • 30分の制限時間をしっかりと意識する。
  • TOEFLはコンピュータでのテストとペーパーテストが選べるが、どちらが自分に合っているか考える。

II. TOEFLライティングの出題の特徴

TOEFLライティングの質問のタイプはいくつかに分けることができます。もちろんどのような出題が行われるか分からないので、すべてのタイプの質問に対してトレーニングをしておく必要があります。まず与えられた出題を読んだときに大体どのようなパターンの出題かを判断できるようになると、構成に迷うこともなくなります。

1. 観点を一つ選び、その根拠を述べる

Example: Some people believe that university students should be required to attend classes. Others believe that going to classes should be optional for students. Which point of view do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer.

このタイプの出題では、ある問題に対して「一つの観点から」意見を述べることが求められています。そのため必ず一つの観点から主張することとし、他の観点から意見を混ぜてはいけません。どちらの意見に賛成で、それはどのような理由なのか論理的に述べるようにします。

2. 何かを説明する

Example: If you could invent something NEW, what product would you develop? Use specific details to explain why this invention is needed?

このような出題には想像力を十分に発揮する必要があります。何か新しいもの・この世にまだ存在しないものを説明することが求められる出題だからです。それが何であって、なぜそれを選択したのか詳細に述べます。

3. 二つの意見を比べ、どちらに同意できるか述べる

Example: Some people think that children should begin their formal education at a very early age and should spend most of their time on school studies. Others believe that young children should spend most of their time playing. Compare these two views. Which view do you agree with? Why?

このタイプでは1とは逆に必ず両方の意見について記述し、その上で同意できる意見を述べます。また、どちらの意見に賛成、またはどちらの意見にも反対と述べてはいけません。必ず一つの立場を選択する必要があります。最初に両方の意見の根拠や例を述べ、そこから自分が同意する意見とその理由を述べます。

4.賛成・反対を述べる

Example: Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: ONLY people who earn a lot of money are successful. Do you agree or disagree with this definition of success? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.

このタイプでも3と同様に、必ず賛成または反対どちらか一方の立場をとることが求められます。曖昧な態度をとってはいけません。この英作文ではまずどちらの意見に賛成するか述べ、その理由を具体例を挙げて説明します。

5. 何かが真実であることを述べる

Example: People remember special gifts or presents that they have received. Why? Give specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

このタイプの出題では、例示をなるべく多く挙げることが重要です。ここで例示するときに「自分が~だったから」という一人称からの記述は避けるようにし、なるべく一般的な根拠があることを示します。

6. アイデアや計画に対する意見とその根拠を述べる

Example: It has recently been announced that a new restaurant may be built in your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.

このような出題では対象に対する賛成・反対の意見と共にそれがなぜなのか述べます。質問が個人的な事項を訪ねているときは“I, me, my”などの一人称も使用できます。

III. エッセイの構成(序論・本論・結論)

In every essay, there should be an introduction, a body and conclusion.

A. The introduction(序論): 

The introduction restates the question using different vocabulary and/or sentence structure. The introduction also includes your thesis statement…the most important sentence in your essay.

B. The body(本論): 

The body of your essay is also the “heart” of your essay. It will include your main ideas and details and examples to support those ideas. Each new idea should be a new paragraph. Typically, a TOEFL essay will have 3 – 4 body paragraphs.

C. The conclusion(結論):
The conclusion will be your final paragraph. It will summarize all the main ideas in your essay and it may also include your opinion.

IV. introduction(序論)の書き方

Let’s look at some more essay questions to see how to restate the question and how to write your thesis statement.

TOEFL essay question #1:
Some people prefer to eat at food stands or restaurants. Other people prefer to prepare and eat food at home. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

Restatement & Thesis:
People have two options when deciding where to eat. They can prepare meals and eat at home or they can go out to stands or restaurants. I prefer to go out to eat because the food is more varied and interesting, it is less work for me and it saves time.

Analysis:
The restatement mentions the two types of options people have for eating and tells which one the author prefers. In addition, it gives three reasons for that preference. These three reasons will make up the three main idea paragraphs in the body of the essay.

TOEFL essay question #2:
Is it better for children to participate in team sports or individual sports? Why? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

Restatement & Thesis:
It is better for children to participate in team sports rather than individual sports. In team sports, children learn how to cooperate. They learn good sportsmanship and how to rely on their teammates. These are important lessons that will benefit children throughout their lives.

Analysis:
The first sentence clearly states the author’s opinion. This is followed by three reasons for the opinion. Finally, the author mentions life lessons. In the essay, the three reasons will make up the three main idea paragraphs in the body of the essay. In addition, the author will mention how each main idea is useful throughout life.

TOEFL essay question #3:
Some people prefer to live in a small town. Others prefer to live in a big city. Which place would you prefer to live in? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.

Restatement & Thesis:
There are many good reasons to live in a big city and an equal number of good reasons to live in a small town. I, myself, prefer to live in a small town because it is more personal and homey; it is easier to get around in and it is safer than a big city.

Analysis:
The first statement says that both a city and town have positive aspects. The next sentence tells the author’s preference and reasons for that preference. These reasons will make up the body of the essay.

V. body paragraphs(本論)の書き方

Each paragraph in your essay introduces a new idea. It should include a thesis statement followed by support and examples. Be sure to use LOTS of examples. Within and between paragraphs be sure to use transition words like: on the other hand, however, though, for example, in contrast, likewise, in addition, first, finally. The paragraph should end with a concluding sentence which briefly summarizes the ideas in the paragraph.

VI. concluding paragraph(結論)の書き方

A good concluding paragraph should include a summary of your main points. It may also include the author’s opinion. It should NOT introduce any new ideas. A good concluding paragraph often leaves an impression on the reader. It may make the reader think more deeply about the topic.

VII. エッセイ解答の時間配分

  1. Read and understand the essay question. (2 minutes).
  2. Organize your ideas on paper by writing a short outline of the introduction, body and conclusion. (8 minutes).
  3. Write your essay. Remember to restate the question in your introduction. Use clear details and LOTS of examples in the body of your essay. Finally, summarize the main ideas in the concluding paragraph of your essay. (15 minutes).
  4. Reread your essay and make any changes in spelling, verb tense, word choice or sentence structure. (5 minutes).


VIII. エッセイ構成のサンプル

TOEFL Question: In some countries, teenagers have jobs while they are still students. Do you think this is a good idea? Support your opinion by using specific reasons and details.

I. It is a good idea for teenagers to have jobs while they are students because they can learn about responsibility; they can learn the value of money and they can learn how to work as a member of a team.

II. Students can learn responsibility
a. They have to come to work on time every day
b. They must serve customers in a friendly manner
c. They have to maintain the store shelves with inventory

III. Students can learn the value of money
a. Students will learn that it takes a lot of time and effort to make money
b. Students will make wiser choices when buying things with their own money

IV. Students will learn how to work as a member of a team
a. Students will learn how to compromise with other employees (helping out when someone is sick, etc.)
b. Students will learn about the friendship that comes from teamwork (feeling like you can trust others)

V. Conclusion
It is a valuable experience for teenagers to have jobs while they are students because they will learn to be responsible adults. They will have an appreciation for money and they will learn about working with others. All of these traits will benefit them throughout their lives.

英文校正ワードバイスの英語添削サービス

ワードバイスなら、英語論文・海外留学用エッセイ・TOEFL対策ライティング・ビジネス英文校正などすべての英文を、分野別専門英文校正者がブラッシュアップいたします。